Coastal wetlands are ecologically and culturally important, though commonly threatened by human activity (Bruland, 2008). Understanding the historic context and current condition of a wetland is beneficial to assessing the restoration suitability of the site. Here, I assess the suitability of restoring the historic wetland agro-ecosystem of Kalou, a present-day marsh in Waialeʻe, Oʻahu. To do so, I set out to answer the following questions:
Three types of wetland agricultural systems are historically documented at Kalou (Kikuchi, 1973):
Archival Data Extraction
To determine the historic wetland extent of Kalou, I used ArcMap to geo-reference Emerson, Lowell and Wall, 1902, and hand-digitize the historic wetland extent deliniated on the map (Figure 6). Similarly, to determine the current state of Kalou, I hand-digitized the present wetland extent and general land-cover types from McDonald, 2019b (Figure 7). Finally, I combined the two aforementioned maps to assess the suitability of restoring the traditional wetland agro-ecosystem of Kalou (Figure 8).
For the purposes of this study, I assumed that:
This study bears a few other notable limitations.
This study demonstrates high potential for agro-ecological restoration of Kalou. It shows how diverse methods can be used to:
In addition to addressing limitations, future work could incorporate:
Bruland, G. L. (2008). Coastal wetlands: function and role in reducing impact of land-based management. In A. Fares & A. I. El-Kadi (Eds.), WIT Transactions on State of the Art in Science and Engineering (1st ed., Vol. 1, pp. 85–124). https://doi.org/10.2495/978-1-84564-091-0/04
Emerson, J. S., Lowell, F. L., & Wall, W. E. (1902). Lower Portion of Waialee, Koolauloa, Oahu. In Hawaii Territory Survey. Retrieved from http://www.avakonohiki.org/uploads/1/2/5/5/12550111/waialee_hgs2109_1902.pdf
Kikuchi, W. K. (1973). Hawaiian aquacultural system (University of Arizona). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10150/565277
McDonald, Kristian (2019a). Aerial View of Kalou Fishpond and Marsh, Waialeʻe, Oʻahu.
McDonald, Kristian (2019b). Ortho-Rectified Mosaic of Kalou Fishpond and Marsh, Waialeʻe, Oʻahu.
Figures and claims not otherwise cited were produced by the author.